Introduction to a Gluten Free Diet

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However, if you prefer, you can change your cookie settings at any time. Please donate. Search the Coeliac UK site Enter what you are looking for. Shoppping Basket. My Account Log in. Join us. Many standard oats are produced in the same place as wheat, barley and rye, which makes them unsafe because they can be contaminated.

A very small number of people are still sensitive to uncontaminated oats. Research has shown that most people with coeliac disease can tolerate gluten free oats with no problems. Only uncontaminated oats can be eaten by people following a gluten free diet.

Introduction to the Gluten-Free Diet

Healthcare professionals recommend against undertaking a gluten-free diet as a form of self-diagnosis , [79] because tests for coeliac disease are reliable only if the person has been consuming gluten recently. There is a consensus in the medical community that people should consult a physician before going on a gluten-free diet, so that a medical professional can accurately test for coeliac disease or any other gluten-induced health issues. Although popularly used as an alternative treatment for people with autism, there is no good evidence that a gluten-free diet is of benefit in reducing the symptoms of autism.

In a double-blind placebo cross-over trial, small amounts of purified wheat gluten triggered gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal bloating and pain and extra-intestinal manifestations such as foggy mind, depression and aphthous stomatitis in self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Nevertheless, it remains elusive whether these findings specifically implicate gluten or other proteins present in gluten-containing cereals. A gluten-free diet is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, proteins present in wheat and all wheat varieties such as spelt and kamut , barley , rye , oat , and derivatives of these grains such as malt and triticale , and foods that may include them, or shared transportation or processing facilities with them.

Other grains, although gluten-free in themselves, may contain gluten by cross-contamination with gluten-containing cereals during grain harvesting, transporting, milling, storing, processing, handling or cooking. Processed foods commonly contain gluten as an additive as emulsifiers, thickeners, gelling agents, fillers, and coatings , so they would need specific labeling.

Unexpected sources of gluten are, among others, processed meat, vegetarian meat substitutes, reconstituted seafood, stuffings, butter, seasonings, marinades, dressings, confectionary, candies, and ice cream. Cross contamination in the home is also a consideration for those who suffer gluten-related disorders. Medications and dietary supplements are made using excipients that may contain gluten.

Symptoms of coeliac disease

The gluten-free diet includes naturally gluten-free food, such as meat, fish, seafood , eggs, milk and dairy products , nuts , legumes , fruit, vegetables, potatoes , pseudocereals in particular amaranth , buckwheat , chia seed , quinoa , only certain cereal grains corn , rice, sorghum , minor cereals including fonio , Job's tears , millet , teff , called "minor" cereals as they are "less common and are only grown in a few small regions of the world" , [17] some other plant products arrowroot , mesquite flour , [85] sago , [86] tapioca [86] and products made from these gluten-free foods.

An unbalanced selection of food and an incorrect choice of gluten-free replacement products may lead to nutritional deficiencies. Replacing flour from wheat or other gluten-containing cereals with gluten-free flours in commercial products may lead to a lower intake of important nutrients, such as iron and B vitamins and a higher intake of sugars and saturated fats.

Catch-up growth after the introduction of a gluten-free diet in children with celiac disease.

These nutritional complications can be prevented by a correct dietary education. In this aim, for example the dietary fibre inulin which acts as a prebiotic [87] or quinoa or amaranth wholemeal have been as substitute for part of the flour. Such substitution has been found to also yield improved crust and texture of bread.

Vitamins often contain gluten as a binding agent. Experts have advised that it is important to always read the content label of any product that is intended to be swallowed. Poor compliance with the regimen is also influenced by age at diagnosis adolescents , ignorance of the consequences of the lack of a strict treatment and certain psychological factors. The term gluten-free is generally used to indicate a supposed harmless level of gluten rather than a complete absence.

Regulation of the label gluten-free varies by country. Most countries derive key provisions of their gluten-free labelling regulations from the Codex Alimentarius international standards for food labelling as a standard relating to the labelling of products as gluten-free. It only applies to foods that would normally contain gluten. It categorizes gluten-free food as:. The Codex Standard specifies that the gluten-free claim must appear in the immediate proximity of the name of the product, to ensure visibility.

There is no general agreement on the analytical method used to measure gluten in ingredients and food products. The European Union, World Health Organization, and Codex Alimentarius require reliable measurement of the wheat prolamins, gliadins rather than all-wheat proteins. The Australian government recommends [95] that:. All food products must be clearly labelled whether they contain gluten or they are gluten-free. The law does not establish a gluten threshold for the declaration of its absence.

Health Canada considers that foods containing levels of gluten not exceeding 20 ppm as a result of contamination, meet the health and safety intent of section B. Labels for all food products sold in Canada must clearly identify the presence of gluten if it is present at a level greater than 10 ppm. The EU European Commission delineates [] the categories as:. All foods containing gluten as an ingredient must be labelled accordingly as gluten is defined as one of the 14 recognised EU allergens.

Until anyone could use the gluten-free claim with no repercussion. After this was reported in the Chicago Tribune , the products continued to be sold. The manufacturer has since replaced the batter used in its chicken nuggets. The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau published interim rules and proposed mandatory labelling for alcoholic products in Any food product that inherently does not contain gluten may use a gluten-free label where any unavoidable presence of gluten in the food bearing the claim in its labelling is below 20 ppm gluten.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Coeliac disease. Main article: Non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Main article: Wheat allergy. Play media. Gluten-free, casein-free diet List of diets Specific Carbohydrate Diet Paleolithic diet s in food. J Gastroenterol Hepatol Review. The gluten found in all of these grains has been identified as the component capable of triggering the immune-mediated disorder, coeliac disease. United European Gastroenterol J Review. World J Gastroenterol. It is necessary to consider that oats include many varieties, containing various amino acid sequences and showing different immunoreactivities associated with toxic prolamins.

As a result, several studies have shown that the immunogenicity of oats varies depending on the cultivar consumed. Thus, it is essential to thoroughly study the variety of oats used in a food ingredient before including it in a gluten-free diet. For CD patients on GFD, the nutritional complications are likely to be caused by the poor nutritional quality of the GFPs mentioned above and by the incorrect alimentary choices of CD patients.

It is advisable to prefer consumption of naturally GF foods, since it has been shown that they are more balanced and complete under both the macro- and micro-nutrient point of view. In fact, these foods are considered to have a higher nutritional value in terms of energy provision, lipid composition and vitamin content as opposed to the commercially purified GF products.

Within the range of naturally GF foods, it is preferable to consume those rich in iron and folic acid, such as leafy vegetables, legumes, fish and meat. During explanation of naturally GF foods to patients, it is a good approach for healthcare professionals to bear in mind the local food habits and recipes of each country. This may provide tailored dietary advice, improving acceptance and compliance to GFD.

Furthermore, increasing awareness on the availability of the local naturally GF foods may help promote their consumption, resulting in a more balanced and economically advantageous diet. Indeed, these aspects should always be addressed during dietary counseling. With regards to the commercially purified GFPs, it is recommended to pay special attention to the labeling and chemical composition. Increasing awareness on the possible nutritional deficiencies associated with GFD may help healthcare professionals and families tackle the issue by starting from early education on GFD and clear dietary advice on how to choose the most appropriate gluten-free foods.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol Review. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. For both wheat allergy and coeliac disease the dietary avoidance of wheat and other gluten-containing cereals is the only effective treatment. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. A recently proposed approach to NCGS diagnosis is an objective improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms and extra-intestinal manifestations assessed through a rating scale before and after GFD.

Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Review. Nutr Clin Pract Review. Historically, a GFD was occasionally used in the management of multiple sclerosis MS , because anecdotal reports indicated a positive effect reversal of symptoms of a GFD in MS patients.


The beneficial effect of a GFD on diarrhea and weight gain in patients with HIV enteropathy has been demonstrated in a few case series. Treatment with a GFD has been observed to decrease the frequency of diarrhea and thus allow weight gain. J Child Neurol. Clin Ther Review. At this time, the studies attempting to treat symptoms of autism with diet have not been sufficient to support the general institution of a gluten-free or other diet for all children with autism.

There may be a subgroup of patients who might benefit from a gluten-free diet, but the symptom or testing profile of these candidates remains unclear. Ferriter M ed. Nutrients Review. See Table 2 and page J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry Review. Incomplete elimination of gluten from the diet may be enough to abolish gastrointestinal symptoms with recovery of the small bowel mucosa but is insufficient to arrest the state of heightened immunological responsiveness resulting in neuronal injury. Minerva Pediatr Review. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol Review.

Celiac disease". The New England Journal of Medicine. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. Am J Obstet Gynecol. BMJ Review. Nature Reviews. British Journal of Nutrition. Is it in the gluten or the grain? Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Disorders.

World J Gastroenterol Review. Gastroenterology Review. Clin Exp Rheumatol Review. One of the most controversial and highly debated discussions concerns the role of gluten in causing NCGS. Recent reports have indicated that gluten might not be the cause of NCGS, and some investigators still question whether NCGS as a real clinical entity. In contrast, there is growing evidence that other proteins that are unique to gluten-containing cereals can elicit an innate immune response that leads to NCGS, raising a nomenclature issue.

For this reason, wheat sensitivity, rather than gluten sensitivity, seems to be a more appropriate term, keeping in mind that other gluten-containing grains such as barley and rye also can trigger the symptoms. Although intolerance to fructans and other FODMAPs may contribute to NCGS, they may only explain gastrointestinal symptoms and not the extraintestinal symptoms observed in NCGS patients, such as neurologic dysfunction, psychological disturbances, fibromyalgia, and skin rash. Cellular and Molecular Immunology Review.

Gastroenterology Research and Practice Review.

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Gastroenterol Clin North Am Review. Furthermore, a role for the FODMAP eg, fructans component of wheat as the sole trigger for symptoms is somewhat doubtful, because many patients with NCWS report resolution of symptoms after the withdrawal of wheat and related cereals, while continuing to ingest vegetables and fruits with high FODMAP content in their diets. Journal of the American College of Nutrition Review.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology from Bed to Bench Review. Aliment Pharmacol Ther Review.

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Clin Exp Allergy [Epub ahead of print]. Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis WDEIA is a rare, but potentially severe food allergy exclusively occurring when wheat ingestion is accompanied by augmenting cofactors. In less severe cases, a strict limitation of wheat ingestion before exercise and avoidance of other cofactors may be sufficient.

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